The Long-Run Effects of the Scramble for Africa
We examine the long-run consequences of ethnic partitioning, a neglected aspect of the Scramble for Africa, and uncover the following regularities. First, apart from the land mass and presence of water bodies, historical homelands of split and non-split groups are similar across many observable characteristics. Second, using georeferenced data on political violence, that include both state-driven conflict and violence against civilians, we find that the incidence, severity and duration of violence are higher in the historical homelands of partitioned groups. Third, we shed some light on the mechanisms showing that military interventions from neighboring countries are much more likely in the homelands of split groups. Fourth, our exploration of the status of ethnic groups in the political arena reveals that partitioned ethnicities are systematically discriminated from the national government and are more likely to participate in ethnic civil wars. Fifth, using individual-level data we document that respondents identifying with split groups have lower access to public goods and worse educational outcomes. The uncovered evidence brings in the foreground the detrimental repercussions of ethnic partitioning.
We would like to thank the Editor and 4 referees for insightful comments and useful suggestions. We also thank Alberto Alesina, Maarten Bosker, Chris Blattman, Francesco Caselli, Giorgio Chiovelli, Jeremiah Dittmar, Joan Esteban, James Fenske, Fabrizio Dell’ Acqua, Federico Finan, David Laitin, Horacio Larreguy Arbesú, Stathis Kalyvas, Sebastian Hohmann, Janina Matuszeski, Ted Miguel, Nathan Nunn, Gregorios Siourounis, Neils Weidman, Andreas Wimmer, and participants at the AEA meetings in Denver, Yale, UC Berkeley, Princeton, ALBA, UC Irvine, UC Merced, American University, Brown, the Institute for Economic Analysis, Autonoma University, George Washington University, CERGE-EI, Surrey, City University, the NBER Political Economy meetings, the CEPR meeting on the Political Economy of Conflict, the NBER Summer Institute Meetings on the Development of the American Economy and Income Distribution and Macroeconomics for useful comments and suggestions. All errors are our sole responsibility. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Stelios Michalopoulos & Elias Papaioannou, 2016. "The Long-Run Effects of the Scramble for Africa," American Economic Review, vol 106(7), pages 1802-1848. citation courtesy of