Jobs and Environmental Regulation

Marc A. C. Hafstead, Roberton C. Williams III

Chapter in NBER book Environmental and Energy Policy and the Economy, volume 1 (2020), Matthew J. Kotchen, James H. Stock, and Catherine D. Wolfram, editors (p. 192 - 240)
Conference held May 16, 2019
Published in February 2020 by University of Chicago Press
© 2020 by the National Bureau of Economic Research
in NBER Book Series Environmental and Energy Policy and the Economy

Political debates around environmental regulation often center around the effect of policy on jobs. Opponents decry the “job-killing” EPA and proponents point to “green jobs” as a positive policy outcome. And beyond the political debates, Congress requires the EPA to evaluate “potential losses or shifts of employment” that regulations under the Clean Air Act may cause. Yet there is a sharp disconnect between the political importance of the jobs question and the limited research on job effects of policy and general skepticism in the academic literature about the importance of those job effects for the costs and benefits of environmental regulation.

In this paper, we discuss how the existing research on jobs and environmental regulations often falls short in evaluating these questions and consider recent new work that has attempted to address these problems. We provide an intuitive discussion of key questions for how job effects should enter into economic analysis of regulations. And, using an economic model from Hafstead, Williams, and Chen (2018), we evaluate a range of environmental regulations in both the short and long-run to develop a set of key stylized facts related to jobs and environmental regulations and to identify the key questions that current models can’t yet answer well.

This chapter is no longer available for free download, since the book has been published. To obtain a copy, you must buy the book.

You may be able to access the full text of this document via the Document Object Identifier.

Machine-readable bibliographic record - MARC, RIS, BibTeX

Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.1086/706799

This chapter first appeared as NBER working paper w26093, Jobs and Environmental Regulation, Marc A. C. Hafstead, Roberton C. Williams III
NBER Videos

National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email:

Contact Us