Political Dynasties, Term Limits and Female Political Empowerment: Evidence from the Philippines
We investigate the effect of term limits on female political representation. Using data from Philippine municipalities where strict term limits have been in place since 1987, we show that term limits led to a large increase in the number of women running and winning in mayoral elections. However, we show that this increase is entirely driven by female relatives of the term-limited incumbents. We further show that the differential gender impact of this policy is driven by political dynasties' adaptive strategies to stay in power.
We thank Cesi Cruz, Raquel Fernandez, Olle Folke, Johanna Rickne and seminar participants in Galatina Summer meetings 2018, Hunter College, NEUDC 2015, the Political Dynasties workshop in Oslo, the 3rd Ottawa Applied Microeconomics Workshop, Petralia Applied Economics Conference 2019, Queens College CUNY, 2019 Scottish Workshop in Development Economics, Tufts University, the University of Oxford, and the University of Washington for constructive feedback. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.