The Gift of Time? School Starting Age and Mental Health
In many developed countries, children now begin their formal schooling at an older age. However, a growing body of empirical studies provides little evidence that such schooling delays improve educational and economic outcomes. This study presents new evidence on whether school starting age influences student outcomes by relying on linked Danish survey and register data that include several distinct, widely used, and validated measures of mental health that are reported out-of-school among similarly aged children. We estimate the causal effects of delayed school enrollment using a "fuzzy" regression-discontinuity design based on exact dates of birth and the fact that, in Denmark, children typically enroll in school during the calendar year in which they turn six. We find that a one-year delay in the start of school dramatically reduces inattention/hyperactivity at age 7 (effect size = -0.7), a measure of self regulation with strong negative links to student achievement. We also find that this large and targeted effect persists at age 11. However, the estimated effects of school starting age on other mental-health constructs, which have weaker links to subsequent student achievement, are smaller and less persistent.
We thank Paul Bingley, Björn Öckert, Kjell Salvanes, and seminar participants at SFI, Stanford University, the fourth SOLE/EALE World Conference, the Copenhagen Education Network, and the CESifo Economics of Education Conference for helpful comments and suggestions. This paper uses data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The Danish National Research Foundation has established the Danish Epidemiology Science Centre that initiated and created the DNBC. The DNBC is a result of a major grant from this Foundation, as well as grants from the Pharmacy Foundation, the Egmont Foundation, the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, the Augustinus Foundation, and the Health Foundation. Sievertsen acknowledges support from The Danish Council for Strategic Research, Grant DSF-09-070295. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Thomas S. Dee & Hans Henrik Sievertsen, 2018. "The gift of time? School starting age and mental health," Health Economics, vol 27(5), pages 781-802. citation courtesy of