Government, Openness and Finance: Past and Present
We explore the role of government in the nexus of finance and trade starting from the earliest days of organised finance in England and then broadening the analysis to 84 countries from 1960 to 2004. For 18th century England, we find that the government expenditures and international trade did have a positive long-run effect on financial development when measured as the value of private loans issued at the Bank of England. For the wider panel of countries and more recent data, we find that government expenditures and trade have positive effects on financial development for countries that are in the mid-ranges of economic development as measured by their per capita incomes, but have little effect for poor countries and strongly negative effects for the wealthiest ones.
We are grateful to the ESRC and SSRC for financial support in the form of a Visiting Fellowship for Peter L. Rousseau at the University of Leicester and Birkbeck College of the University of London in the Summer 2009 and 2010. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Panicos O. Demetriades & Peter L. Rousseau, 2011. "Government, Openness And Finance: Past And Present," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 79(s2), pages 98-115, 09. citation courtesy of