NBER Working Papers and Publications
|December 1995||Schooling, Labor Force Quality, and Economic Growth|
with Eric A. Hanushek: w5399
Human capital is almost always identified as a crucial ingredient for growing economies, but empirical investigations of cross-national growth have done little to clarify the dimensions of relevant human capital or any implications for policy. This paper concentrates on the importance of labor force quality, measured by cognitive skills in mathematics and science. By linking international test scores across countries, a direct measure of quality is developed, and this proves to have a strong and robust influence on growth. One standard deviation in measured cognitive skills translates into one percent difference in average annual real growth ratesþan effect much stronger than changes in average years of schooling, the more standard quantity measure of labor force skills. Further, the e...
|December 1991||Local House Price Indexes: 1982-1991|
with Donald Haurin, Patric Hendershott: w3933
We begin with a description of three house price panel data sets for the period 1982 to 1991. Next, we estimate a model that assumes the three sources are derived from an underlying unobserved price series, and we construct composite indexes that report house prices for 135 locations. These series can be used either as explanatory variables in studies of household formation, housing demand, and migration or to test models of the determinants of spatial and intertemporal variations in house prices. Finally, we construct regional series (based, alternatively, on census and Salomon Brothers regions) and two national aggregates and describe their movements. Our series are compared to other local, regional, and national series.
Published: Real Estate Economics, 19(3), September 1991, pp. 451-472 citation courtesy of
|March 1990||Tenure Choice of American Youth|
with Donald R. Haurin, Patric H. Hendershott: w3310
While there seems to be no end to estimates of housing tenure determinants, prior studies have not accounted for the simultaneity of tenure choice with household formation, labor supply or the marriage decision. Our estimates are superior to those in the literature both because we address these issues and because we better measure the cost of owning relative to renting. Accounting for simultaneity with the household formation and labor supply decisions matter. Using a household's predicted wage rate rather than its observed income doubles the response of tenure choice to the price of owning relative to renting. Including household formation selectivity correction variables cuts the response to tenure choice to the predicted wage by 25 percent. Moreover, the impact of variations in demograp...
Published: Journal of Urban Economics, January 1994, pp 28-45.
|Real Rents and Household Formation: The Effect of the 1986 Tax Reform Act|
with Donald R. Haurin, Patric H. Hendershott: w3309
Although the economic literature has analyzed some components of the headship decision, study of household formation has been primarily in the realm of demography. We begin with a pure demographic model and expand it to include additional determinants of the decision to remain with parents or not, to marry or not, and to live with a group or separately. Our results, based on a sample of 2355 youth in their twenties, indicate that (1) rental costs, wealth, and the potential wage that a youth could earn are important variables in explaining the outcomes of these choices am (2) including the economic variables significantly changes the estimated impacts of the demographic variables. One insight that the expanded economic model allows is the prediction that some public policies will affect hea...
Published: Review of Economic Statistics, August 1993, pp. 289-293.