New research by NBER affiliates, circulated for discussion and comment. The NBER distributes more than 1,200 working papers each year. These papers have not been peer reviewed. Papers issued more than 18 months ago are open access. More recent papers are available without charge to affiliates of subscribing academic institutions, employees of NBER Corporate Associates, government employees in the US, journalists, and residents of low-income countries. The NBER is working to make its web content accessible to all. To request an accessible version of a Working Paper, please contact email@example.com and one will be provided within 5 business days.
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