Measuring U.S. International Goods and Services Transactions
In order to better capture the close relationship between firms' cross-border trading activities and the sales and purchasing activities of their foreign affiliates, this paper proposes supplementary accounting formats that classify cross-border and foreign affiliate activities on an ownership basis, in contrast to the residency approach followed in the balance-of-payments accounts. One format combines net cross-border sales by Americans to foreigners, net sales by foreign affiliates of U.S. firms to foreigners, and net sales of U.S. firms to U.S. affiliates of foreign firms to yield a figure that indicates net sales by Americans to foreigners. Another accounting format measures the value-added embodied in cross-border and foreign affiliate activities on an ownership basis. U.S. cross- border and foreign affiliate activities based on these two approaches are presented and analyzed for the period, 1987-1992. In addition, data by industry are presented in these formats.
Baldwin, Robert E. and Fukunari Kimura. "Measuring U.S. International Goods and Services Transactions". Geography and Ownership as Bases for Economic Accounting. Edited by Robert E. Baldwin, Robert E. Lipsey, and J. David Richardson, The Univ. Chicago Press: Chicago, Ill,1998, pp. 9-36
Measuring U.S. International Goods and Services Transactions, Robert E. Baldwin, Fukunari Kimura. in Geography and Ownership as Bases for Economic Accounting, Baldwin, Lipsey, and Richardson. 1998