Diversification, Integration and Emerging Market Closed-End Funds
Using an extensive new data set on U.S. and U.K.-traded closed- end funds, we examine the diversification benefits from emerging equity markets and the extent of their integration with global capital markets. To measure diversification benefits, we exploit the duality between Hansen-Jagannathan bounds  and mean-standard deviation frontiers. We find significant diversification benefits for the U.K. country funds, but not for the U.S. funds. The difference appears to relate to differences in portfolio holdings. To investigate global market integration, we compute the reduction in expected returns an investor would be willing to accept to avoid investment barriers in six countries. We find evidence of investment restrictions for Indonesia, Taiwan and Thailand, but not for Korea, the Philippines or Turkey.