Male Jobs, Female Jobs, and Gender Gaps in Benefits Coverage
Using contract-level data from the Canadian province of Ontario, we show that workers in predominately female bargaining units have more generous leave provisions but are less likely to have pension coverage than workers in similar predominantly male bargaining units. These differences persist when wages in the bargaining unit are controlled for. We explore the gender differences in pension coverage using a large cross-section of individual-level data and show that for women, lack of pension coverage is explained by gender gaps in wages and tenure which are themselves associated with marriage and child bearing. Finally, we assess the extent to which these findings are consistent with two alternative models of sex-segregation: Labor market discrimination, or a model in which segregation arises because women bear the chief responsibility for household production and tend to hold jobs which are compatible with that role.
Research in Labor Economics, Summer 1995