Carbon Emissions Trading and Environmental Protection: International Evidence
We study how the implementation of emissions trading systems (ETS) impacts emissions reductions and the usage of renewable energy using a panel sample of the largest 100 countries worldwide. Exploiting the cross-country variations in ETS implementations, we show that ETS adoption materially reduced greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide) emissions by 12.1% (18.1%). Moreover, ETSs reduced overall emissions by cutting fossil fuel usage, such as coal, by 23.70% while boosting the usage of renewable energy by 61.59%, on average. In contrast, the introduction of carbon taxes has a less effective impact on emissions reduction and fails to boost the usage of renewable energy.
We thank the financial support from the Nanyang Technological University. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.