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The Surrogate Index: Combining Short-Term Proxies to Estimate Long-Term Treatment Effects More Rapidly and Precisely

Susan Athey, Raj Chetty, Guido W. Imbens, Hyunseung Kang

NBER Working Paper No. 26463
Issued in November 2019

---- Acknowledgments ----

We are grateful for discussions with James Dailey, Lawrence Katz, Dylan Small, Scott Stern, and Liang Xu and for comments from numerous seminar participants. We thank Emanuel Schertz and James Stratton for outstanding research assistance. This research was funded through National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1502437, the Chan-Zuckerberg Initiative, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Overdeck Foundation. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.

---- Disclosure of Financial Relationships for Guido W. Imbens ----

I have consulted for Microsoft Corporation, Facebook, Amazon, and Lilly Corporation.

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