NBER Working Paper No. 19664
---- Acknowledgments ----
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) Grant Agreement #249429, the National Science Foundation (NSF grant "Patent Pools and Biomedical Innovation", award #0830288) and from Harvard Business School's Division of Research. Jean Tirole is a member of IDEI, whose IP research program is funded by Microsoft, Orange and Qualcomm. We are grateful to participants at the Berkeley Center for Law & Technology-IDEI's conference on Standard Essential Patents (Toulouse), to seminar participants at the University of Edinburgh, and to Di Pei, Patrick Rey, and Olivier Wang for helpful comments and discussions.