Persecution Perpetuated: The Medieval Origins of Anti-Semitic Violence in Nazi Germany
---- Acknowledgments ----
We thank Sascha Becker, Efraim Benmelech, Davide Cantoni, Dora Costa, Raquel Fernandez, Jordi Galí, Claudia Goldin, Avner Greif, Elhanan Helpman, Rick Hornbeck, Saumitra Jha, Matthew Kahn, Lawrence Katz, Deirdre McCloskey, Joel Mokyr, Petra Moser, Nathan Nunn, Steve Pischke, Leah Platt Boustan, Shanker Satyanath, Kurt Schmidheiny, Andrei Shleifer, Yannay Spitzer, Peter Temin, Matthias Thoenig, and Jaume Ventura for helpful comments. Seminar audiences at CREI, Harvard, NYU, Northwestern, Stanford, UCLA, UPF, Warwick, and at the 2011 Royal Economic Society Conference offered useful criticisms. We are grateful to Hans-Christian Boy for outstanding research assistance, and Jonathan Hersh, Maximilian von Laer, and Diego Puga for help with the geographic data. Davide Cantoni and Noam Yuchtman kindly shared their data on year of incorporation and first market for German cities. Voigtländer acknowledges financial support from the UCLA Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER). Voth thanks the European Research Council for generous funding. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.