The Impact of Affirmative Action on Employment
Affirmative action under Executive Order 11246 ranks among the most controversial of domestic federal policies.This study asks whether affirmative action has been successful in promoting the employment of minorities and females. It compares the change in demographics between 1974 and 1980 at more than sixty-eight thousand establishments, and finds that both minority and female employment have increased faster at establishments subject to affirmative action. Compliance reviews, while not well targeted are also found to have been effective.
Leonard, Jonathan S. "The Impact of Affirmative Action on Employment." Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 2, No. 4, (October 1984), pp. 439-463. citation courtesy of