Leandro Carvalho

Center for Economic and Social Research
University of Southern California
635 Downey Way
Los Angeles, CA 90089

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: University of Southern California

NBER Working Papers and Publications

September 2019Misfortune and Mistake: The Financial Conditions and Decision-making Ability of High-cost Loan Borrowers
with Arna Olafsson, Dan Silverman: w26328
This paper studies the relationship between adverse financial conditions (“misfortunes”), imperfect decision-making (“mistakes”), and the demand for high-cost credit. Imperfect choices are hard to identify; unobserved factors can justify many behaviors as optimal. We address this by linking administrative and experimental data. Bank records from Iceland detail the financial conditions associated with high-cost loan demand. The experiments manipulate constraints, while holding preferences and beliefs constant, to identify choice imperfections and measure decision-making ability. We then relate loan demand to decision-making ability and measures of constraints and preferences. High-cost borrowers are especially illiquid in the days leading up to getting a loan. They also have much lower deci...
July 2019Complexity and Sophistication
with Dan Silverman: w26036
Many financial situations present individuals with simple alternatives to solving complex problems. Are individuals sophisticated; do they know when they are better off opting out of complexity? We tested complexity's effects and evaluated sophistication in a large and diverse sample. We randomly assigned both complexity to portfolio problems and the offer of a simple alternative to portfolio choice. The less skilled opt out more often under complexity and thus earn lower returns, often from dominated choices. Estimated with a novel identification strategy, the structural parameters of a rational inattention model are, nevertheless, consistent with substantial sophistication. Substantial fractions of the money lost by opting out can be justified by attention cost savings.
May 2019Distributional Effects of Education on Health
with Silvia H. Barcellos, Patrick Turley: w25898
This paper studies distributional effects of education on health. In 1972, England, Scotland, and Wales raised their minimum school-leaving age from 15 to 16 for students born after 9/1/1957. Using a regression discontinuity design and objective health measures for 0.27 million individuals, we find that education reduced body size and increased blood pressure in middle age. The reduction in body size was concentrated at the upper tail of the distribution with a 7.5 percentage point reduction in obesity. The increase in blood pressure was concentrated at the lower tail of the distribution with no effect on stage 2 hypertension.
January 2012Child Gender And Parental Investments In India: Are Boys And Girls Treated Differently?
with Silvia H. Barcellos, Adriana Lleras-Muney: w17781
Although previous research has not always found that boys and girls are treated differently in rural India, son-biased stopping rules imply that estimates of the effect of gender on parental investments are likely to be biased because girls systematically end up in larger families. We propose a novel identification strategy for overcoming this bias. We document that boys receive significantly more childcare time than girls. In addition boys are more likely to be breastfed longer, and to be given vaccinations and vitamin supplementation. We then present suggestive evidence that the differential treatment of boys is neither due to their greater needs nor to the effect of anticipated family size.

Child gender and Parental Investments in India: Are boys and Girls Treated Differently?” forthcoming, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. (joint with Silvia H. Barcellos and Leandro Carvalho) citation courtesy of

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