Hâle Utar

Grinnell College
Department of Economics
HSSC 2342
1220 Park Street
Grinnell, IA 50112
Tel: 641-2699225

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: Grinnell College

NBER Working Papers and Publications

November 2018Globalization, Gender, and the Family
with Wolfgang Keller: w25247
This paper shows that in the presence of labor market shocks, child-bearing and child-rearing have far-reaching implications for gender inequality, household specialization and family structure. Using population register data on all births, marriages, and divorces together with employer-employee linked data for Denmark, we show that reduced labor market opportunities due to Chinese import competition lead to a move towards family, with higher rates of fertility, parental leave, and marriage, as well as lower rates of divorce. This move is driven by women, not men. We document substantial long-run earnings losses concentrated on women, and gender inequality increases. The gender-specific effects are due to a woman’s ability to give birth during a fixed period of life–her biological clock. W...
June 2016International Trade and Job Polarization: Evidence at the Worker-Level
with Wolfgang Keller: w22315
This paper examines the role of international trade for job polarization, where mid-wage occupations decline while employment opportunities of workers in both high- and low-wage occupations increase. With employer-employee matched data on virtually all workers and firms in Denmark between 1999 and 2009, we use instrumental-variables techniques and a quasi-natural trade liberalization experiment to show that import competition has been a significant cause of job polarization. Comparing import competition to other explanations of job polarization, import competition is quantitatively comparable to technical change as the most important alternative explanation of the hollowing out of middle-class jobs, and only import competition explains also the increase in employment opportunities in the h...
June 2008Credit Rationing, Risk Aversion and Industrial Evolution in Developing Countries
with Eric Bond, James R. Tybout: w14116
Relative to their counterparts in high-income regions, entrepreneurs in developing countries face less efficient financial markets, more volatile macroeconomic conditions, and higher entry costs. This paper develops a dynamic empirical model that links these features of the business environment to cross-firm productivity distributions, entrepreneurs' welfare, and patterns of industrial evolution. Applied to panel data on Colombian apparel producers, the model yields econometric estimates of a credit market imperfection index, the sunk costs of creating a new business, and a risk aversion index (inter alia). Model-based counterfactual experiments suggest that improved intermediation could dramatically increase the return on assets for entrepreneurial households with modest wealth, and that ...

Published: Eric W. Bond & James Tybout & Hale Utar, 2015. "Credit Rationing, Risk Aversion, And Industrial Evolution In Developing Countries," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 56, pages 695-722, 08. citation courtesy of

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