Carolyn Fischer

Resources for the Future
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Washington, DC 20036

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Institutional Affiliation: Resources for the Future

NBER Working Papers and Publications

November 2017Horizontal Equity Effects in Energy Regulation
with William A. Pizer: w24033
Choices in energy regulation, particularly whether and how to price externalities, can have widely different distributional consequences both across and within income groups. Traditional welfare theory focuses largely on effects across income groups; such “vertical equity” concerns can typically be addressed by a progressive redistribution of emissions revenues. In this paper, we review alternative economic perspectives that give rise to equity concerns within income groups, or “horizontal equity,” and suggest operational measures. We then apply those measures to a stylized model of pollution regulation in the electricity sector. In addition, we look for ways to present the information behind those measures directly to stakeholders. We show how horizontal equity concerns might overshadow e...

Published: Carolyn Fischer & William A. Pizer, 2019. "Horizontal Equity Effects in Energy Regulation," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol 6(S1), pages S209-S237.

September 2016Horizontal Equity Effects in Energy Regulation
with William A. Pizer
in Energy Policy Tradeoffs between Economic Efficiency and Distributional Equity, Tatyana Deryugina, Don Fullerton, and Billy Pizer, organizers
February 2013Environmental Macroeconomics: Environmental Policy, Business Cycles, and Directed Technical Change
with Garth Heutel: w18794
Environmental economics has traditionally fallen in the domain of microeconomics, but recently approaches from macroeconomics have been applied to studying environmental policy. We focus on two macroeconomic tools and their application to environmental economics. First, real business cycle models can incorporate pollution and pollution policy and be used to answer several questions. How can environmental policy adjust to business cycles? How do different types of policies fare in a context with business cycles? Second, endogenous technological growth is an important component of environmental policy. Several studies ask how policy can be designed to both tackle emissions directly and influence the adoption of clean technologies. We focus on these two aspects of environmental macroec...

Published: Carolyn Fischer & Garth Heutel, 2013. "Environmental Macroeconomics: Environmental Policy, Business Cycles, and Directed Technical Change," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 5(1), pages 197-210, 06. citation courtesy of

September 2010Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives
with Soren T. Anderson, Ian Parry, James M. Sallee: w16370
This paper discusses fuel economy regulations in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including their impacts on fuel use and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review different methodologies for assessing the costs of fuel economy regulations and discuss what the results of these methodologies imply for policy. Following that, we compare the welfare effects of fuel economy regulations to those of fuel taxes and assess whether or not these two policies can be complements. Finally, we review arguments for transitioning away from fuel economy regulations towards a "feebate" system.

Published: Soren T. Anderson & Ian W. H. Parry & James M. Sallee & Carolyn Fischer, 2011. "Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Oxford University Press for Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(1), pages 89-108, Winter. citation courtesy of

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