NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

What Do Test Scores Miss? The Importance of Teacher Effects on Non-Test Score Outcomes

C. Kirabo Jackson

NBER Working Paper No. 22226
Issued in May 2016, Revised in November 2016
NBER Program(s):Children, Economics of Education, Labor Studies, Public Economics

This paper extends the traditional test-score value-added model of teacher quality to allow for the possibility that teachers affect a variety of student outcomes through their effects on both students’ cognitive and noncognitive skill. Results show that teachers have effects on skills not measured by test-scores, but reflected in absences, suspensions, course grades, and on-time grade progression. Teacher effects on these non-test-score outcomes in 9th grade predict effects on high-school completion and predictors of college-going—above and beyond their effects on test scores. Relative to using only test-score measures of teacher quality, including both test-score and non-test-score measures more than doubles the predictable variability of teacher effects on these longer-run outcomes.

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w22226

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