The Evolution of Income, Consumption, and Leisure Inequality in The US, 1980-2010

Orazio Attanasio, Erik Hurst, Luigi Pistaferri

NBER Working Paper No. 17982
Issued in April 2012
NBER Program(s):   EFG

Recent research has documented that income inequality in the United States has increased dramatically over the prior three decades. There has been less of a consensus, however, on whether the increase in income inequality was matched by an equally large increase in consumption inequality. Most researchers have studied this question using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) and some studies have suggested that the increase in consumption inequality has been modest. Unfortunately ,there is now mounting evidence that the CE is plagued by serious non-classical measurement error, which hinders the extent to which definitive conclusions can be made about the extent to which consumption inequality has evolved over the last three decades.

In this paper, we use a variety of different techniques to overcome the measurement error problems with the CE. First, we use data from the diary component of the CE, focusing on categories where measurement error has been found to be less of an issue. Second, we explore inequality measures within the CE using the value of vehicles owned, a consumption component that is considered to be measured well. Third, we try to account directly for the non-classical measurement error of the CE by comparing the spending on luxuries (entertainment) relative to necessities (food). This is similar to the recent approach taken by Browning and Crossley (2009) and Aguiar and Bils (2011). Finally, we use expenditure data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to explore the dynamics of alternative measures of consumption inequality. All of our different methods yield similar results. We find that consumption inequality within the U.S. between 1980 and 2010 has increased by nearly the same amount as income inequality.

download in pdf format
   (470 K)

email paper

Machine-readable bibliographic record - MARC, RIS, BibTeX

Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w17982

Published: The Evolution of Income, Consumption, and Leisure Inequality in the United States, 1980–2010, Orazio Attanasio, Erik Hurst, Luigi Pistaferri. in Improving the Measurement of Consumer Expenditures, Carroll, Crossley, and Sabelhaus. 2015

Users who downloaded this paper also downloaded* these:
Attanasio and Weber w15756 Consumption and Saving: Models of Intertemporal Allocation and Their Implications for Public Policy
Fryer w16256 Racial Inequality in the 21st Century: The Declining Significance of Discrimination
Aguiar and Hurst w13837 The Increase in Leisure Inequality
Aguiar and Bils w16807 Has Consumption Inequality Mirrored Income Inequality?
Krueger and Perri w9202 Does Income Inequality Lead to Consumption Inequality? Evidence and Theory
NBER Videos

National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email:

Contact Us