NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

The Gravity Model

James E. Anderson

NBER Working Paper No. 16576
Issued in December 2010
NBER Program(s):   ITI

The gravity model in economics was until relatively recently an intellectual orphan, unconnected to the rich family of economic theory. This review is a tale of the orphan's reunion with its heritage and the benefits that have flowed from it. Gravity has long been one of the most successful empirical models in economics. Incorporating the theoretical foundations of gravity into recent practice has led to a richer and more accurate estimation and interpretation of the spatial relations described by gravity. Recent developments are reviewed here and suggestions are made for promising future research.

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w16576

Published: James E. Anderson, 2011. "The Gravity Model," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 3(1), pages 133-160, 09. citation courtesy of

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