The NBER U.S. Patent Citations Data File: Lessons, Insights, and Methodological Tools
These data comprise detail information on almost 3 million U.S. patents granted between January 1963 and December 1999, all citations made to these patents between 1975 and 1999 (over 16 million), and a reasonably broad match of patents to Compustat (the data set of all firms traded in the U.S. stock market).
These data are described in detail in
ALL USERS OF THESE DATA SHOULD READ THIS PAPER, AND SHOULD CITE IT AS THE SOURCE OF THE DATA
Further documentation on uses of the patent citation data, including the methodology paper and a CD containing the complete dataset itself, is available in the book Patents, Citations and Innovations: A Window on the Knowledge Economy by Adam Jaffe and Manuel Trajtenberg, MIT Press, Cambridge (2002). The book may be ordered from MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-10095-9.
The CUSIP match is based on the 1989 universe of companies
The data are freely available below in two compressed (".zip") formats: SAS transport (.tpt) files
and ASCII comma-separated variable (.csv) files.
The program read_tpt.sas can be used to convert the .tpt files
to native SAS data sets.
Lines in the ASCII CSV files are terminated by the newline character "\n".
"CSV" stands for comma separated values. All values in the ASCII CSV files
are separated by commas. In addition, the character values are enclosed by double quotes.
The compression ratio for the compressed files is about 75%.
The ".zip" files can be uncompressed with winzip
To check your ability to uncompress these files, download the small file
The SAS ".tpt" files are transferable to other formats using software such
or DBMS/Copy, and can be used
directly by Stata using the fdause command.
You will need a major database, statistical program, or programming language to use these files.
Most of the datasets are too large to load completely into MS Excel 2000, which has a maximum
of 65,536 observations, though
Access can be used to read the ASCII datafile.
View variable descriptions and observations per file in the
"Documentation" column of the table below.
To search patents, try Google -> more -> patents or http://www.freepatentsonline.com
For international patent databases check FIZ Karlsruhe,
the British Library
(Derwent is one Patent Copy Service that
delivers patents from the British Library.),
the German Patent and Trade Mark Office,
the French Intellectual Property Institute,
the IciMarques database,
or the EP-CESPRI database, a database
along the lines of the NBER dataset, but for European Patent Office data.
More recent data can be obtained from the U.S. Patent Office's ftp site.
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