NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Economic Considerations and Class Size

Alan B. Krueger

NBER Working Paper No. 8875
Issued in April 2002
NBER Program(s):   CH   LS   PE   ED

This paper examines evidence on the effect of class size on student achievement. First, it is shown that results of quantitative summaries of the literature, such as Hanushek (1997), depend critically on whether studies are accorded equal weight. Hanushek summarizes 277 estimates extracted from 59 published studies, and weights all estimates equally, which implicitly places more weight on some studies than others. A small number of studies, which often present estimates for several small subsamples of a larger sample, account for more than half of the estimates. Studies from which relatively many estimates were extracted tend to find negative effects of school resources, whereas the majority of studies from which relatively few estimates were extracted tend to find positive effects. When all studies in Hanushek's literature summary are given equal weight, resources are systematically related to student achievement. In addition, when studies are assigned weights in proportion to the 'impact factor' of the journal in which they were published -- a crude measure of journal quality -- class size is systematically related to achievement. When studies are given weights in proportion to their number of estimates, however, resources and achievement are not systematically related. It is argued that assigning equal weights to studies, or weights according to quality, is preferable to assigning weights according to the number of estimates extracted from the studies, because study quality is unlikely to be related to the number of estimates taken from the study, and because researcher discretion in selecting estimates is limited when studies are assigned equal weight. Second, a cost-benefit analysis of class size reduction is performed. Results of the Tennessee STAR class-size experiment suggest that the internal rate of return from reducing class size from 22 to 15 students is around 6%.

download in pdf format
   (269 K)

email paper

This paper is available as PDF (269 K) or via email.

Machine-readable bibliographic record - MARC, RIS, BibTeX

Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w8875

Published: Alan B. Krueger, 2003. "Economic Considerations and Class Size," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(485), pages F34-F63, February.

Users who downloaded this paper also downloaded these:
Hoxby w8855 The Cost of Accountability
Krueger and Schanzenbach w7656 The Effect of Attending a Small Class in the Early Grades on College-Test Taking and Middle School Test Results: Evidence from Project STAR
De Giorgi, Pellizzari, and Woolston w16405 Class Size and Class Heterogeneity
Krueger w6051 Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions
Lazear w7349 Educational Production
 
Publications
Activities
Meetings
Data
People
About

Support
National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email: info@nber.org

Contact Us