International Spillovers and Water Quality in Rivers: Do Countries Free Ride?
NBER Working Paper No. 8585
Transboundary spillovers may degrade environmental quality if countries free ride. This paper examines the extent of such degradation in water quality in international rivers. Using data from river monitoring stations in the UN's Global Emissions Monitoring System (GEMS), it compares pollution levels in international and domestic rivers. The results suggest that free riding may substantially increase pollution in international rivers, but the estimates are sensitive to the inclusion of country effects.
Published: Sigman, Hilary. "International Spillovers And Water Quality In Rivers: Do Countries Free Ride?," American Economic Review, 2002, v92(4,Sep), 1152-1159.