NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

An Options-Based Analysis of Emerging Market Exchange Rate Expectations: Brazil's Real Plan, 1994-1997

Jose M. Campa, P.H. Kevin Chang, James F. Refalo

NBER Working Paper No. 6929
Issued in February 1999
NBER Program(s):   IFM

This paper uses currency option data from the BMF, the Commodities and Futures exchange in Sao Paulo, Brazil, to investigate market expectations on the Brazilian Real-U.S. dollar exchange rate from October 1994 through July 1997. Using options data, we derive implied probability density functions (PDF) for expected future exchange rates and thus measures of the credibility of the crawling peg' and target zone ( maxiband') regimes governing the exchange rate. Since we do not impose an exchange rate model, our analysis is based on either the risk-neutral PDF or arbitrage-based tests of target zones. The paper one of the first to use options data from an emerging market, finds that target zone credibility was poor prior to February 1996, but improved afterwards. The market anticipated periodic band adjustments, but over time developed greater confidence in the Real. We also test whether devaluation intensities estimated from these option prices can be explained by standard macroeconomic factors.

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w6929

Published: Campa, Jose M. & Chang, P. H. Kevin & Refalo, James F., 2002. "An options-based analysis of emerging market exchange rate expectations: Brazil's Real Plan, 1994-1999," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 227-253, October.

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