NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

The Evolving External Orientation of Manufacturing Industries: Evidence from Four Countries

Jose Campa, Linda S. Goldberg

NBER Working Paper No. 5919
Issued in February 1997
NBER Program(s):International Trade and Investment, International Finance and Macroeconomics

Significant changes in the external orientation of manufacturing industries are observed in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, but not in Japan. The observed increases in external orientation are in terms of industry export shares, import penetration, and imported input use in production. United States industries have experienced a particularly dramatic increase in imported input use, accompanied by highly variable patterns of industry net external orientation over the past two decades. Although similar manufacturing industries have strong export orientation in all countries, across countries these same industries have profoundly different patterns of import penetration, imported input use, and net external exposure to exchange rate and trade policy changes

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w5919

Published: Economic Policy Review, Vol. 3, no. 2 (July 1997): 53-81.

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