Openness and Growth: A Time-Series, Cross-Country Analysis for Developing Countries
NBER Working Paper No. 5221
This paper draws together a variety of openness measures to test the association between openness and growth. Although the correlation across different types of openness is not always strong, there is generally a positive association between growth and different measures of openness. The strength of the association depends on whether the specification uses cross-section or panel data (which combines cross- section and time series). For industrializing countries, which have exhibited significant fluctuations in trade regimes over time, long run averages may not serve as very meaningful indicators of policy.
Published: Harrison, Ann. "Openness And Growth: A Time-Series, Cross-Country Analysis For Developing Countries," Journal of Development Economics, 1996, v48(2,Mar), 419-447.