The Changing Fortunes of FHA's Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund and the Legislative Response
Patric H. Hendershott, James A. Waddell
NBER Working Paper No. 3592
The 1980s was a bad decade for FHA's Mutual Mortgage Insurance (MMI) program, the mainstay of FHA's single family mortgage insurance. While the MMI Fund is required by statute to be actuarially sound, the Fund lost close to $6 billion dollars, and its economic value declined from 5.3 percent of insurance-in-force to under one percent. This study documents the decline in the soundness of the MMI Fund in the 1980s and describes the legislation enacted in October 1990 to shore up the Fund.
Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w3592
Published: Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, June 1992, pp. 119-132 citation courtesy of