NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Toward a Theory of Rigidities

Bruce C. Greenwald, Joseph E. Stiglitz

NBER Working Paper No. 2938 (Also Reprint No. r1352)
Issued in April 1989
NBER Program(s):   EFG

This paper presents a theory of rigidity, or more properly inertia, in the responses of economic variables to changing environments. The theory rests on three fundamental assumptions: (1) that firms are risk averse, (2) that firms are uncertain of the impacts of changing decision variables and (3) that this uncertainty increases with the size of deviations in decision variables from appropriately defined past level. Under these circumstances an optimal portfolio of incremental decision variable adjustments exists which (a) takes variance minimizing adoptions to environmental change as a point of departure and then (b) is weighted in favor of changes in variables whose effects are less uncertain. In considering price and quantity adjustments, this implies that price and wage adjustments should largely incorporate expected inflation and, from that point, should be small relative to quantity adjustments, since in most situations the uncertainties associated with the consequences of quantity adjustment should be smaller than those associated with price adjustments.

download in pdf format
   (267 K)

download in djvu format
   (110 K)

email paper

Machine-readable bibliographic record - MARC, RIS, BibTeX

Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w2938

Published: The American Economic Review, Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 364-369, (May 1989). citation courtesy of

Users who downloaded this paper also downloaded these:
Stiglitz w1442 Theories of Wage Rigidity
Greenwald and Stiglitz w2160 Keynesian, New Keynesian, and New Classical Economics
Greenwald and Stiglitz w3359 Asymmetric Information and the New Theory of the Firm: Financial Constraints and Risk Behavior
Greenwald and Stiglitz w2188 Money, Imperfect Information and Economic Fluctuations
Greenwald, Stiglitz, and Weiss w1335 Informational Imperfections in the Capital Market and Macro-Economic Fluctuations
 
Publications
Activities
Meetings
NBER Videos
Themes
Data
People
About

National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email: info@nber.org

Contact Us