NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Broken or Fixed Effects?

Charles E. Gibbons, Juan Carlos Suárez Serrato, Michael B. Urbancic

NBER Working Paper No. 20342
Issued in July 2014, Revised in March 2017

---- Acknowledgements ----

We are grateful for comments from Michael Anderson, Alan Auerbach, Rodney Andrews, Joshua Angrist, Marianne Bitler, Henning Bohn, Moshe Buchinsky, Federico Bugni, Colin Cameron, Carlos Dobkin, Shakeeb Khan, Maximilian Kasy, Patrick Kline, Yolanda Kodrzycki, Trevon Logan, Fernando Lozano, Matt Masten, Arnaud Maurel, Doug Miller, Juan Carlos Montoy, Enrico Moretti, Ron Oaxaca, Steve Raphael, Adam Rosen, Jesse Shapiro, Jasjeet Sekhon, Todd Sorensen, Doug Steigerwald, Rocio Titiunik, and Philippe Wingender and for the comments and suggestions of seminar participants at UC Berkeley, the 2008 AEA Pipeline Conference at UCSB, and the 2009 All UC Labor Conference. We also thank Stephen Lagos and Andrew Stanek for research assistance. Any remaining errors are the fault of the authors. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.

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