NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Married to Intolerance: Attitudes towards Intermarriage in Germany, 1900-2006

Nico Voigtländer, Hans-Joachim Voth

NBER Working Paper No. 18813
Issued in February 2013
NBER Program(s):Development of the American Economy, Political Economy

We analyze under which conditions intermarriage can be used as an indicator of tolerance, and whether such tolerant attitudes persisted in Germany during the last century. We find strong evidence for the persistence of tolerant attitudes towards intermarriage with Jews. At the same time, our empirical analysis also cautions against using intermarriage as a simple proxy for tolerance: The size of Jewish communities in the early 20th century is an important confounding factor.

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w18813

Published: Nico Voigtländer & Hans-Joachim Voth, 2013. "Married to Intolerance: Attitudes toward Intermarriage in Germany, 1900-2006," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(3), pages 79-85, May. citation courtesy of

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