The Short-Run and Long-Run Effects of Behavioral Interventions: Experimental Evidence from Energy Conservation
---- Acknowledgements ----
We thank Ken Agnew, David Cesarini, Gary Charness, Paul Cheshire, Lucas Davis, Stefano DellaVigna, Xavier Gabaix, Francesca Gino, Uri Gneezy, Michael Greenstone, Judd Kessler, David Laibson, Katy Milkman, Sendhil Mullainathan, Karen Palmer, Charlie Sprenger, staff at the utilities we study, and a number of seminar participants for feedback and helpful conversations. Thanks also to Tyler Curtis, Lisa Danz, Rachel Gold, Arkadi Gerney, Marc Laitin, Laura Lewellyn, Elena Washington, and many others at Opower for sharing data and insight with us. We are grateful to the Sloan Foundation for financial support of our research on the economics of energy efficiency. Stata code for replicating the analysis is available from Hunt Allcott's website. Opower provided the data analyzed in this paper to the authors under a nondisclosure agreement. The authors and Opower structured the agreement in a way that maintains the authors' independence. In particular, the agreement stipulates that Opower has the right to review the publication prior to public release solely for factual accuracy. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.