NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

The White/Black Educational Gap, Stalled Progress, and the Long Term Consequences of the Emergence of Crack Cocaine Markets

William N. Evans, Craig Garthwaite, Timothy J. Moore

NBER Working Paper No. 18437
Issued in October 2012
NBER Program(s):   ED   LS   PE

We propose the rise of crack cocaine markets as an explanation for the end to the convergence in black-white educational outcomes beginning in the mid-1980s. After constructing a measure to date the arrival of crack markets in cities and states, we show large increases in murder and incarceration rates after these dates. Black high school graduation rates also decline, and we estimate that crack markets accounts for between 40 and 73 percent of the fall in black male high school graduation rates. We argue that the primary mechanism is reduced educational investments in response to decreased returns to schooling.

You may purchase this paper on-line in .pdf format from SSRN.com ($5) for electronic delivery.

Information about Free Papers

You should expect a free download if you are a subscriber, a corporate associate of the NBER, a journalist, an employee of the U.S. federal government with a ".GOV" domain name, or a resident of nearly any developing country or transition economy.

If you usually get free papers at work/university but do not at home, you can either connect to your work VPN or proxy (if any) or elect to have a link to the paper emailed to your work email address below. The email address must be connected to a subscribing college, university, or other subscribing institution. Gmail and other free email addresses will not have access.

E-mail:

Machine-readable bibliographic record - MARC, RIS, BibTeX

Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w18437

Users who downloaded this paper also downloaded these:
Fryer, Heaton, Levitt, and Murphy w11318 Measuring the Impact of Crack Cocaine
Gibson, Fendrick, and Chernew w18402 Cost-Sharing and Productivity
Michalopoulos, Naghavi, and Prarolo w18438 Trade and Geography in the Origins and Spread of Islam
Grogger and Willis w6353 The Introduction of Crack Cocaine and the Rise in Urban Crime Rates
Imberman and Lovenheim w18439 Incentive Strength and Teacher Productivity: Evidence from a Group-Based Teacher Incentive Pay System
 
Publications
Activities
Meetings
NBER Videos
Data
People
About

Support
National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email: info@nber.org

Contact Us