Epilogue: Foreign-Exchange-Market Operations in the Twenty-First Century

Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage, Anna J. Schwartz

NBER Working Paper No. 17984
Issued in April 2012
NBER Program(s):   DAE   ME

Foreign-exchange operations did not end after the United States stopped its activist approach to intervention. Japan persisted in such operations, but avoided overt conflict with its monetary policy. With the on-set of the Great Recession, Switzerland has transacted in foreign exchange both for monetary and exchange-rate purposes, and key central banks have used swap facilities to extended their lender-of-last-resort functions. Developing and emerging market economies continue to intervene, but their actions may hamper the development of their own foreign-exchange markets. China's undervalued exchange rate is producing inflation and real appreciation, despite China's efforts to sterilize its reserve accumulation.

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w17984

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