NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Productivity Growth and the Regional Dynamics of Antebellum Southern Development

Alan L. Olmstead, Paul W. Rhode

NBER Working Paper No. 16494
Issued in October 2010
NBER Program(s):   DAE

Between 1800 and 1860, the United States became the preeminent world supplier of cotton as output increased sixty-fold. Technological changes, including the introduction of improved cotton varieties, contributed significantly to this growth. Measured output per worker in the cotton sector rose four-fold and large regional differences emerged. By 1840, output per worker in the New South was twice that in the Old South. The economy-wide increase is explained, in equal measure, by growth in output per worker at fixed locations and by the reallocation of labor across regions. These results offer a new view on the dynamics of economic development in antebellum America.

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w16494

Published: Alan L. Olmstead, “Productivity Growth and the Regional Dynamics of Antebellum Southern Development,” pp. 180 - 213 in Paul W. Rhode, Joshua L. Rosenbloom, and David F. Weiman, eds., Economic Evolution and Revolution in Historical Tim e (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011) (with Paul W. Rhode).

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