---- Acknowledgments ----
We thank Tim Besley, Ryan Bubb, Steve Coate, Amy Finkelstein, Ed Glaeser, Roger Gordon, Seema Jayachandran, Henrik Kleven, Wojciech Kopczuk, Stephan Litschig, Erzo Luttmer, Rohini Pande, Jim Poterba, and numerous seminar participants for comments. We thank Angelin Baskaran, Octavia Foarta, Angela Kilby, Arash Nekoei, and Yusuf Neggers for excellent research assistance. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Harvard University Asia Center (Olken and Singhal), NICHD grant R03HD051957 (Olken), and the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs and the Taubman Center for State and Local Government (Singhal). We thank Rob Chase and Diane Steele at the World Bank for providing us with data. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the World Bank, the National Bureau of Economic Research, or any other institution.