NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Which Immigrants Are Most Innovative and Entrepreneurial? Distinctions by Entry Visa

Jennifer Hunt

NBER Working Paper No. 14920
Issued in April 2009
NBER Program(s):   LS   PR

Using the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, I examine how immigrants perform relative to natives in activities likely to increase U.S. productivity, according to the type of visa on which they first entered the United States. Immigrants who first entered on a student/trainee visa or a temporary work visa have a large advantage over natives in wages, patenting, commercializing or licensing patents, and publishing. In general, this advantage is explained by immigrants' higher education and field of study, but this is not the case for publishing, and immigrants are more likely to start companies than natives with similar education. Immigrants without U.S. education and who arrived at older ages suffer a wage handicap, which offsets savings to the United States from their having completed more education abroad. Immigrants who entered with legal permanent residence do not outperform natives for any of the outcomes considered.

download in pdf format
   (631 K)

email paper

This paper is available as PDF (631 K) or via email.

Machine-readable bibliographic record - MARC, RIS, BibTeX

Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w14920

Published: Jennifer Hunt, 2011. "Which Immigrants Are Most Innovative and Entrepreneurial? Distinctions by Entry Visa," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(3), pages 417 - 457. citation courtesy of

Users who downloaded this paper also downloaded these:
Kerr and Lincoln w15768 The Supply Side of Innovation: H-1B Visa Reforms and US Ethnic Invention
Hunt and Gauthier-Loiselle w14312 How Much Does Immigration Boost Innovation?
Hunt w15853 Why Do Women Leave Science and Engineering?
Borjas w12085 Immigration in High-Skill Labor Markets: The Impact of Foreign Students on the Earnings of Doctorates
Peri w15507 The Effect of Immigration on Productivity: Evidence from US States
 
Publications
Activities
Meetings
NBER Videos
Data
People
About

Support
National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email: info@nber.org

Contact Us