NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Is There an "Emboldenment" Effect? Evidence from the Insurgency in Iraq

Radha Iyengar, Jonathan Monten

NBER Working Paper No. 13839
Issued in March 2008

---- Acknowledgements -----

The opinions and conclusions are solely those of the authors. We are grateful to Orley Ashenfelter, David Autor, Eli Berman, Ryan Bubb, Erica Chenoweth, Martin Feldstein, Lawrence Katz, Mathew Kroenig, John Nagl, Megan O'Sullivan, and James Wilson for helpful comments and insightful suggestions. We thank Jason Campbell and Michael Greenstone for their generous provision of data sources and Wesley Hopkins and Kyle Chauvin for excellent research assistance. Funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs is gratefully acknowledged. Any remaining errors are entirely ours. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.

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