Trade and Empire
---- Acknowledgements -----
A version of this paper is forthcoming in Economic Journal. We thank Tai-Yu Chen, Mitch Frass, Justin Jones, Julie Van Tighem, and Maria Revutsky for research assistance, and the Dean Witter Foundation, Santa Clara University (Presidential Research Grant), and the National Science Foundation (NSF Grant 0518661) for financial support. We also thank Carolyn Evans, Jeffry Frieden, Alan Taylor, and seminar participants at the Harvard Business School, University of Michigan, UCLA, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, and the St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank for comments and suggestions. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.