NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

The Market for Teacher Quality

Eric A. Hanushek, John F. Kain, Daniel M. O'Brien, Steven G. Rivkin

NBER Working Paper No. 11154
Issued in February 2005
NBER Program(s):   PE   ED

Much of education policy focuses on improving teacher quality, but most policies lack strong research support. We use student achievement gains to estimate teacher value-added, our measure of teacher quality. The analysis reveals substantial variation in the quality of instruction, most of which occurs within rather than between schools. Although teacher quality appears to be unrelated to advanced degrees or certification, experience does matter -- but only in the first year of teaching. We also find that good teachers tend to be effective with all student ability levels but that there is a positive value of matching students and teachers by race. In the second part of the analysis, we show that teachers staying in our sample of urban schools tend to be as good as or better than those who exit. Thus, the main cost of large turnover is the introduction of more first year teachers. Finally, there is little or no evidence that districts that offer higher salaries and have better working conditions attract the higher quality teachers among those who depart the central city district. The overall results have a variety of direct policy implications for the design of school accountability and the compensation of teachers.

download in pdf format
   (426 K)

email paper

A non-technical summary of this paper is available in the August 2005 NBER digest.  You can sign up to receive the NBER Digest by email.

This paper is available as PDF (426 K) or via email.

Machine-readable bibliographic record - MARC, RIS, BibTeX

Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w11154

Users who downloaded this paper also downloaded these:
Hanushek w16606 The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality
Hanushek w10229 Some Simple Analytics of School Quality
Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor w11936 Teacher-Student Matching and the Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness
Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin w7082 Do Higher Salaries Buy Better Teachers?
Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin w6691 Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement
 
Publications
Activities
Meetings
NBER Videos
Data
People
About

Support
National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email: info@nber.org

Contact Us