Money, Credit Constraints, and Economic Activity
NBER Working Paper No. 1084 (Also Reprint No. r0379)
When government expenditures exceed current tax revenues, the resulting deficit must be financed either by issuing bonds, which imply obligations to levy future taxes, or by creating high-powered money. The choice between money and bonds is often thought to be of great moment for both real and nominal variables; that is, monetary policy matters.There is by now a wide empirical consensus that monetary policy has effects on real variables like output and employment. But there is far less agreement about why this is so. The purpose of this paper is to take issue with some currently fashionable views of why money has real effects,and to suggest a new theory, or rather resurrect an old one--the loanable funds theory--and give it new, improved microfoundations.
Published: Blinder, Alan S. and Joseph E. Stiglitz. "Money, Credit Constraints, and Economic Activity." American Economic Review, Vol. 73, No. 2 (May 1983), pp. 297-302.