Institute of Health Research and Policy
University of Illinois at Chicago
NBER Working Papers and Publications
|August 2010||Cigarette Excise Taxation: The Impact of Tax Structure on Prices, Revenues, and Cigarette Smoking|
with Frank J. Chaloupka, IV, Richard Peck, John A. Tauras, Ayda Yurekli: w16287
The main purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the effects of the cigarette excise tax structure on three outcomes: cigarette prices, government revenues, and cigarette consumption. We composed cross-sectional time-series data for 21 EU countries from year 1998 to 2007 from various data resources. We provide strong evidence that the price gap between premium and low-priced brands is larger in countries with a greater share of ad valorem tax. A 10-percent raise in the share of ad valorem tax in total excise tax leads to about a 4 to 5 percent increase in the price gap, with a smaller impact in more concentrated markets. Our estimates confirm that greater instability of government tax revenues from cigarette excise taxes can be attributed to greater reliance on the ad v...
|February 2010||The Business Cycle and Health Behaviors|
with Robert Kaestner: w15737
In this paper, we take a structural approach to investigate the effects of wages and working hours on health behaviors of low-educated persons using variation in wages and hours caused by changes in economic activity. We find that increases in hours are associated with an increase in cigarette smoking, a reduction in physical activity, and fewer visits to physicians. More importantly, we find that most of the effects associated with changes in hours can be attributed to the changes in the extensive margin of employment. Increases in wages are associated with greater consumption of cigarettes.
Published: Xin Xu, 2013. "The business cycle and health behaviors," Social Science & Medicine, vol 77, pages 126-136.
|March 2006||Effects of Title IX and Sports Participation on Girls' Physical Activity and Weight|
with Robert Kaestner: w12113
In this study, we examined the association between girls%u2019 participation in high school sports and the physical activity, weight, body mass and body composition of adolescent females during the 1970s when girls%u2019 sports participation was dramatically increasing as a result of Title IX. We found that increases in girls%u2019 participation in high school sports, a proxy for expanded athletic opportunities for adolescent females, were associated with an increase in physical activity and an improvement in weight and body mass among girls. In contrast, adolescent boys experienced a decline in physical activity and an increase in weight and body mass during the period when girls%u2019 athletic opportunities were expanding. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that Title IX and ...
Published: Kaestner, Robert and Xin Xu. “Effects of Title IX and Sports Participation on Girls’ Physical Activity and Weight." Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research 17 (2006): 79-111.