NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Ximena Clark

The World Bank
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Washington, DC 20433

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NBER Working Papers and Publications

March 2004Port Efficiency, Maritime Transport Costs and Bilateral Trade
with David Dollar, Alejandro Micco: w10353
Recent literature has emphasized the importance of transport costs and infrastructure in explaining trade, access to markets, and increases in per capita income. For most Latin American countries, transport costs are a greater barrier to U.S. markets than import tariffs. We investigate the determinants of shipping costs to the U.S. with a large database of more than 300,000 observations per year on shipments of products aggregated at six-digit HS level from different ports around the world. Distance volumes and product characteristics matter. In addition, we find that ports efficiency is an important determinant of shipping costs. Improving port efficiency from the 25th to the 75th percentile reduces shipping costs by 12 percent. (Bad ports are equivalent to being 60% farther away from mar...

Published: Clark, Ximena, David Dollar and Alejandro Micco. "Port Efficiency, Maritime Transport Costs, And Bilateral Trade," Journal of Development Economics, 2004, v75(2,Dec), 417-450. citation courtesy of

June 2002Where Do U.S. Immigrants Come From, and Why?
with Timothy J. Hatton, Jeffrey G. Williamson: w8998
The United States has experienced rising immigration levels and changing source since the 1950s. The changes in source have been attributed to the 1965 Amendments to the Immigration Act that abolished country-quotas and replaced them with a system that emphasized family reunification. Some believed that the Amendments would not change the 'traditional' sources of US immigrants. Given this view, it seems all the more remarkable that the sources of immigration changed so dramatically. This paper isolates the economic and demographic fundamentals that determined immigration rates by source from 1971 to 1998 -- income, education, demographic composition and inequality. The paper also allows for persistence - big US foreign-born stocks implying a strong 'friends and neighbors' pull on current i...
 
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