School of Social Work
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NBER Working Papers and Publications
|June 2011||Time for Children: Trends in the Employment Patterns of Parents, 1967-2009|
with Liana E. Fox, Christopher Ruhm, Jane Waldfogel: w17135
Utilizing data from the 1967-2009 years of the March Current Population Surveys, we examine two important resources for children's well-being: time and money. We document trends in parental employment, from the perspective of children, and show what underlies these trends. We find that increases in family work hours mainly reflect movements into jobs by parents who, in prior decades, would have remained at home. This increase in market work has raised incomes for children in the typical two-parent family but not for those in lone-parent households. Time use data from 1975 and 2003-2008 reveal that working parents spend less time engaged in primary childcare than their counterparts without jobs but more than employed peers in previous cohorts. Analysis of 2004 work schedule data suggests th...
Published: Liana Fox & Wen-Jui Han & Christopher Ruhm & Jane Waldfogel, 2013. "Time for Children: Trends in the Employment Patterns of Parents, 1967â2009," Demography, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 25-49, February. citation courtesy of
|January 2009||Public Policies and Women's Employment after Childbearing|
with Christopher Ruhm, Jane Waldfogel, Elizabeth Washbrook: w14660
This paper examines how the public policy environment in the United States affects work by new mothers following childbirth. We examine four types of policies that vary across states and affect the budget constraint in different ways. The policy environment has important effects, particularly for less advantaged mothers. There is a potential conflict between policies aiming to increase maternal employment and those maximizing the choices available to families with young children. However, this tradeoff is not absolute since some choice-increasing policies (generous child care subsidies and state parental leave laws) foster both choice and higher levels of employment.
Published: B E J Econom Anal Policy. 2011 July 28; 11(1): 2938. doi: 10.2202/1935-1682.2938 PMCID: PMC3769194 NIHMSID: NIHMS474288 Public Policies, Women’s Employment after Childbearing, and Child Well-Being Elizabeth Washbrook,corresponding author Christopher J. Ruhm, Jane Waldfogel, and Wen-Jui Han
|December 2007||Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking|
with Christopher Ruhm, Jane Waldfogel: w13697
Utilizing data from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplement merged with data from other months of the CPS, we describe trends in parents' employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are associated with parental leave policies. The period we examine -- 1987 to 2004 -- is one in which such policies were expanded at both the state and federal level. We also provide the first comprehensive evidence as to how these expansions are correlated with employment and leave-taking for both mothers and fathers over this period. Our main finding is that leave expansions have increased the amount of time that new mothers and fathers spend on leave, with effects that are small in absolute terms but large relative to the baseline...
Published: Wen-Jui Han & Christopher Ruhm & Jane Waldfogel, 2009.
"Parental leave policies and parents' employment and leave-taking,"
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(1), pages 29-54.
citation courtesy of