NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Syed Ali Hasanain

Lahore University of Management Sciences
Street 29 Lahore 54792, Pakistan

E-Mail: hasanain@lums.edu.pk

NBER Working Papers and Publications

May 2014Identifying Ideology: Experimental Evidence on Anti-Americanism in Pakistan
with Leonardo Bursztyn, Michael Callen, Bruno Ferman, Saad Gulzar, Noam Yuchtman: w20153
Identifying the role of intrinsic, ideological motivation in political behavior is confounded by agents' consequential aims and social concerns. We present results from two experiments that implement a methodology isolating Pakistani men's intrinsic motives for expressing anti-American ideology, in a context with clearly-specified financial costs, but minimal consequential or social considerations. Over one-quarter of subjects forgo around one-fifth of a day's wage to avoid anonymously checking a box indicating gratitude toward the U.S. government, thus revealing anti-Americanism. We find that ideological expression responds to financial and social incentives, and that measured ideology predicts membership in a major anti-American political party.
 
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