NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
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Ran Zhuo

Department of Economics
Harvard University
Cambridge, MA 02138
USA

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: Harvard University

NBER Working Papers and Publications

November 2019The Impact of the General Data Protection Regulation on Internet Interconnection
with Bradley Huffaker, KC Claffy, Shane Greenstein: w26481
The Internet comprises thousands of independently operated networks, interconnected using bilaterally negotiated data exchange agreements. The European Union (EU)’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) imposes strict restrictions on handling of personal data of European Economic Area (EEA) residents. A close examination of the text of the law suggests significant cost to application firms. Available empirical evidence confirms reduction in data usage in the EEA relative to other markets. We investigate whether this decline in derived demand for data exchange impacts investment in interconnection by networks in the EEA relative to networks in non-EEA OECD countries. Our data consists of a large sample of interconnection agreements between networks globally in 2015–2019. All evidence es...
September 2018Sniff Tests in Economics: Aggregate Distribution of Their Probability Values and Implications for Publication Bias
with Christopher Snyder: w25058
The increasing demand for rigor in empirical economics has led to the growing use of auxiliary tests (balance, specification, over-identification, placebo, etc.) supporting the credibility of a paper's main results. We dub these "sniff tests" because standards for passing are subjective and rejection is bad news for the author. Sniff tests offer a new window into publication bias since authors prefer them to be insignificant, the reverse of standard statistical tests. Collecting a sample of nearly 30,000 sniff tests across 60 economics journals, we provide the first estimate of their aggregate probability-value (p-value) distribution. For the subsample of balance tests in randomized controlled trials (for which the distribution of p-values is known to be uniform absent publication bias, al...
 
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