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NBER Working Papers and Publications
|February 2016||What Forces Dictate the Design of Pollution Monitoring Networks?|
with Nicholas Z. Muller: w21966
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maintains networks of pollution monitors for two basic purposes: to check and enforce the attainment of national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and to provide useful data for studying pollution and its effects. These purposes imply conflicting criteria for the locations of a limited number of monitors. To check the attainment of standards, monitors are placed where pollution levels are highest. Monitors are not required where standards have always been met and there are no new pollution sources. To provide useful data for studying pollution and its effects, monitors are placed to observe outcomes under a variety of pollution levels. This study asks the following questions. What factors affect when a monitor is retired from the net...
Published: Nicholas Z. Muller & Paul A. Ruud, 2018. "What Forces Dictate the Design of Pollution Monitoring Networks?," Environmental Modeling & Assessment, vol 23(1), pages 1-14.
|February 1984||Family Labor Supply With Taxes|
with Jerry A. Hausman: w1271
Over the period 1960 - 1983 the proportion of federal tax revenue raised by taxation of labor supply has risen from 57-77 percent. In this paper, we specify and estimate a model of family labor supply which treats both federal and state taxation. Husbands and wives labor supply are treated jointly rather than in aseparate manner as in previous research. A method to calculate the virtual wage for nonworking spouses is used within a utility maximizing framework to treat correctly the joint family labor supply decision. Joint family efforts are found to be important. The efficiency cost (deadweight loss) of labor taxation is estimated to be 29.6% of tax revenue raised. The effect of the new 10% deduction to ease the marriage tax for working spouses leads to a prediction of 3.8% increase in wi...
Published: Hausman, Jerry A. Hausman and Paul Ruud. "Family Labor Supply With Taxes." American Economic Review, Vol. 74, No. 2, (May 1984), pp. 242-248. citation courtesy of