NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Natalia Ramondo

School of Int'l Relations and Pacific Studies
University of California at San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0519
La Jolla, CA 92093
Tel: 858/534-2660

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NBER Program Affiliations: ITI
NBER Affiliation: Faculty Research Fellow

NBER Working Papers and Publications

August 2015Intrafirm Trade and Vertical Fragmentation in U.S. Multinational Corporations
with Veronica Rappoport, Kim J. Ruhl: w21472
Using firm-level data, we document two new facts regarding intrafirm trade and the activities of the foreign affiliates of U.S. multinational corporations. First, intrafirm trade is concentrated among a small number of large affiliates within large multinational corporations; the median affiliate ships nothing to the rest of the corporation. Second, we find that the input-output coefficient linking the parent’s and affiliate’s industries of operation—a characteristic commonly associated with production fragmentation— is not related to a corresponding intrafirm flow of goods.

Published: Ramondo, Natalia & Rappoport, Veronica & Ruhl, Kim J., 2016. "Intrafirm trade and vertical fragmentation in U.S. multinational corporations," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 51-59. citation courtesy of

April 2013Innovation and Production in the Global Economy
with Costas Arkolakis, Andrés Rodríguez-Clare, Stephen Yeaple: w18972
The decline in the costs of multinational production (MP) has led some countries to specialize in innovation and others to specialize in production. To study the aggregate and distributional implications of this phenomenon, we develop a quantifiable general equilibrium model of trade and MP. Specialization is endogenously determined as a result of comparative advantage and home market effects (HME) that arise from the interaction between increasing returns to innovation and geographical frictions. The model yields simple structural expressions for bilateral trade and MP that we use to calibrate it across a set of OECD countries. Comparative statics exercises reveal that the reduction in the cost of MP or the integration of China into the world economy may hurt countries that are driven to ...
November 2012Trade, Domestic Frictions, and Scale Effects
with Andrés Rodríguez-Clare, Milagro Saborío-Rodríguez: w18532
Because of scale effects, idea-based growth models have the counterfactual implication that larger countries should be much richer than smaller ones. New trade models share this same problematic feature: although small countries gain more from trade than large ones, this is not strong enough to offset the underlying scale effects. In fact, new trade models exhibit other counterfactual implications associated with scale effects – in particular, domestic trade shares and relative income levels increase too steeply with country size. We argue that these implications are largely a result of the standard assumption that countries are fully integrated domestically, as if they were a single dot in space. We depart from this assumption by treating countries as collections of regions that face posi...

Published: Natalia Ramondo & Andrés Rodríguez-Clare & Milagro Saborío-Rodríguez, 2016. "Trade, Domestic Frictions, and Scale Effects," American Economic Review, vol 106(10), pages 3159-3184. citation courtesy of

December 2009Trade, Multinational Production, and the Gains from Openness
with Andrés Rodríguez-Clare: w15604
This paper quantifies the gains from openness arising from trade and multinational production (MP). We present a model that captures key dimensions of the interaction between these two flows: Trade and MP are competing ways to serve a foreign market; MP relies on imports of intermediate goods from the home country; and foreign affiliates of multinationals can export part of their output. The calibrated model implies that the gains from trade can be twice as high as the gains calculated in trade-only models, while the gains from MP are slightly lower than the gains computed in MP-only models.

Published: Natalia Ramondo & Andr�s Rodr�guez-Clare, 2013. "Trade, Multinational Production, and the Gains from Openness," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 121(2), pages 273 - 322. citation courtesy of

 
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