NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Michael Marmot

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
Royal Free and University College London Medical S
1-19 Torrington Place
London WC1E6BT, UK

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org

NBER Working Papers and Publications

March 2009The SES Health Gradient on Both Sides of the Atlantic
with James Banks, Zoe Oldfield, James P. Smith
in Developments in the Economics of Aging, David A. Wise, editor
November 2006The SES Health Gradient on Both Sides of the Atlantic
with James Banks, Zoe Oldfield, James P. Smith: w12674
Looking across many diseases, average health among mature men is much worse in America compared to England. Second, there exists a steep negative health gradient for men in both countries where men at the bottom of the economic hierarchy are in much worse health than those at the top. This health gradient exists whether education, income, or financial wealth is used as the marker of one's SES status. These conclusions are maintained even after controlling for a standard set of behavioral risk factors such as smoking, drinking, and obesity and are equally true using either biological measures of disease or individual self-reports. In contrast to these disease based measures, health of American men appears to be superior to the health of English men when self-reported general health status i...

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