Michael Kottelenberg

1349 Western Ave.
Huron University College
London, ON Canada N6G 1H3

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NBER Working Papers and Publications

March 2017Does Quebec's Subsidized Child Care Policy Give Boys and Girls an Equal Start?
with Steven F. Lehrer: w23259
Although an increasing body of research promotes the development of universal early education and care programs, little is known about the extent to which these programs affect gender gaps in academic achievement and other developmental outcomes. Analyzing the introduction of universal highly-subsidized child care in Quebec, we first demonstrate that there are no statistically significant gender differences in the average effect of access to universal child care on child outcomes. However, we find substantial heterogeneity in policy impacts on the variance of developmental and behavioral scores across genders. Additionally, our analysis reveals significant evidence of differential parenting practices by gender in response to the introduction of the policy. The analysis is suggestive that t...

Published: Michael J. Kottelenberg & Steven F. Lehrer, 2018. "Does Quebec’s subsidized child care policy give boys and girls an equal start?," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, vol 51(2), pages 627-659. citation courtesy of

October 2016New Evidence on How Skills Influence Human Capital Acquisition and Early Labour Market Return to Human Capital between Canada and the United States
with Steven F. Lehrer
in Public Policies in Canada and the United States, Philip Oreopoulos and David Card, organizers
March 2016Targeted or Universal Coverage? Assessing Heterogeneity in the Effects of Universal Childcare
with Steven F. Lehrer: w22126
We extend earlier research evaluating the Quebec Family Policy by providing the first evidence on the distributional effects of universal child care on two specific developmental outcomes. Our analysis uncovers substantial policy relevant heterogeneity in the estimated effect of access to subsidized child care across two developmental score distributions for children from two-parent families. Whereas past research reported findings of negative effects on mothers and children from these families, igniting controversy, our estimates reveal a more nuanced image that formal child care can indeed boost developmental outcomes for children from some households: particularly disadvantaged single-parent households. In addition, we document significant heterogeneity that differs by child gender. We ...

Published: Michael J. Kottelenberg & Steven F. Lehrer, 2017. "Targeted or Universal Coverage? Assessing Heterogeneity in the Effects of Universal Child Care," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 35(3), pages 609-653. citation courtesy of

February 2013New Evidence on the Impacts of Access to and Attending Universal Childcare in Canada
with Steven F. Lehrer: w18785
In Canada, advocates of universal child care often point to policies implemented in Quebec as providing a model for early education and care policies in other provinces. While these policies have proven to be incredibly popular among citizens, initial evaluations of access to these programs indicated they led to a multitude of undesirable child developmental, health and family outcomes. These research findings ignited substantial controversy and criticism. In this study, we show the robustness of the initial analyses to i) concerns over whether negative outcomes would vanish over time as suppliers gained experience providing child care, ii) concerns regarding multiple testing, and iii) concerns that the original test measured the causal impact of childcare availability and not child care a...

Published: Michael J. Kottelenberg & Steven F. Lehrer, 2013. "New Evidence on the Impacts of Access to and Attending Universal Child-Care in Canada," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 39(2), pages 263-286, June. citation courtesy of

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